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Neanderthals in the game:

  According to the Basic D&D rules, Neanderthals appear as 2-HD monsters and have Lawful alignments. They are shy, but usually friendly. Being cave dwellers, Neanderthals like both dwarves and (to a lesser extent) gnomes, and usually trade with them, exchanging food from the hunt for manufactured items. The strength and good nature of the dwarves, in particular, make them admired by Neanderthal tribes.
  However, Neanderthals hate goblins and kobolds because of their conflicting attitudes. Goblins and kobolds are weak and cowardly, and are prone to attack noncombatants and the helpless - a base action in the eyes of a warrior people who only respect might.
  White apes are kept as pets for a number of reasons. First, like most humans, Neanderthals are amused by the antics of primate pets. Second, the apes are vegetarians and pose no threat to the cavemen; the apes accompany Neanderthal females and children while the males hunt. Third, the keen senses and defensive abilities of the apes serve to protect the nonwarriors from foes. In many cases, the apes act as if the humans were members of their own white-ape tribe,
  Ogres are hated as competitors in the same (primitive) economic level who desire the same sort of food and lodging, yet have a hostile alignment and prey on the Neanderthals from time to time. With the respect that Neanderthals (like any primitive culture) have for brute force and physical might, ogres rate highly as the most dangerous foes of these people.
  Neanderthal leaders are a special type of human, but they are not truly a separate race. When a leader dies, the most powerful tribal cleric selects the most powerful male or female (as appropriate) among the Neanderthals in the area, This person is then fed a special series of herbs and other foods, and the cleric calls upon an unknown force or power (possibly an Immortal spirit). As a result, this person slowly grows in size, strength, and power until he or she becomes in all ways like the leader-types mentioned in the Basic D&D game rules. Because these leaders are solely concerned with their tribe's welfare and rarely go adventuring, they are rarely player characters - unless the Dungeon Master develops a good reason for such to be otherwise.
As a rule, Neanderthals are not familiar with magical items or powerful magic (beyond what tribal clerics can perform). NPC Neanderthals have a - 2 penalty to their morale when confronted with powerful magic, though PC Neanderthals may be braver.
 
PC Neanderthals

Neanderthals, if used as a playercharacter race/class in the D&D game, have the following statistics:

Strength      10+
Intelligence  normal
Wisdom       normal
Dexterity      normal
Constitution 9+
Charisma     13 (max.)
 
  NPC Neanderthals are treated in all ways as the non-leader types in the Basic D&D game rules. Female Neanderthals have 1 HD and save as 1st-level fighters. Each family band (see below) has one cleric, treated in all ways as a human cleric: 60% of these clerics are 1st level; 30%, 2nd level; 9%, 3rd level; and, 1%, 4th level.
Clerics never travel away from their bands, and cannot be player characters.
  Warrior Neanderthals wear thick furs to give themselves AC 8; few of them have mastered shields, though there is no reason why they could not use shields and even heavier armor and weapons, if given the training and equipment. Though NPC Neanderthals have a + 1 bonus to damage due to their generally great strength, individual PCs will have varying strength bonuses.
 Neanderthals, unlike other demi-human races, are not organized into clans. Instead, they are grouped into family bands of 10-40 adults and 4-40 children (1-6 hp each). These are each led by two leaders (as mentioned above) and are formed into large tribes of 3-12 family groups. The bands come together a few times a year to trade, gossip, and so forth, as detailed below. Within each tribe, there are two leaders, male and female, with maximum hit points (for 6 HD), and a cleric of level 4-7. The band with the most powerful leader (in terms of hit points) usually has the most powerful fighters, since the leaders of the less-powerful bands encourage such warriors to join the band of the strongest leader. This band fights with a morale of 8 rather than 7, as it will have more prestige.
  Neanderthals can find slanting passages and sense direction underground on a roll of 1-2 on a d6. Also, they can make weapons and tools out of the appropriate types of stone, taking one day of work per device. They generally speak common (though poorly), their own language, and the goblin and dwarven tongues, as well as their alignment tongue. All of them are quite skilled in the basics of wilderness survival, hunting, and plant identification; these talents should be handled by the DM as seen fit.
  PC Neanderthals are like human fighters in that their talents are wholly based upon warrior skills. The appropriate tables are given below. It is assumed that PC Neanderthals are known to be exceptionally powerful members of their tribe, and only the PCs within a tribe will have level advancement (the leaders are assumed to have once been 2-HD Neanderthals who were advanced to 6 HD by special means). Only PC leaders can rise above 6th level; as such, PC Neanderthal leaders automatically gain a 13 charisma (if they did not have it before), Additionally, leaders gain one charisma point per level over the 6th, though this bonus applies only to dealings with other Neanderthals.

Neanderthal Experience Table:
Level     XP              Title
1            0                 Youth
2            4,000          Hunter
3            8,000          Axe Master
4            16,000        Bear Slayer
5            32,000        Great Bear Slayer
6            64,000        Leader
7            120,000      7th-level Leader
8            240,000      8th-level Leader
9            480,000      9th-level Leader
10          600,000      10th-level Leader
11          720,000      11th-level Leader
12          840,000      12th-level Leader
 
Neanderthal Saving Throws Table:
Level:                    1.3      4.6    7.9    10.12
Death Ray or
Poison                      8       6       4         2
Magic Wands        13     11      9          7
Paralysis or Turn
to Stone                 12      10     8          6
Dragon Breath      15      13    11         9
Rod/Staff/Spell      16     14    12        10

Hit Dice:Tough, hardy PC Neanderthals gain 1d1O per level, with a maximum of 6d10 at 6th level. Thereafter, they gain + 3 hit points per level. This great toughness is balanced by their slow level advancement.
  Neanderthals cannot advance beyond 5th level without taking the special ceremonial treatment that makes them leaders. If leader PCs are allowed for whatever reason, they save as human fighters. Because of the ceremony making them into leaders, PC Neanderthal leaders must work to support and protect their tribe and people at all times; selfish adventuring cannot even be considered. All treasure gained by adventuring is brought back to the tribe and distributed as seen fit among the people, so that the tribe as a whole is enriched. Dungeon Masters using the Companion D&D game rules may create information on relics and additional powers; Neanderthal relics, for some reason, are always cave-bear skulls of exceptional size. It is rumored that an Immortal spirit guides the Neanderthals; this spirit is said to resemble a gigantic cave bear.
 
Daily Neanderthal life:
Neanderthals are hunter-gathers, which usually means that the males hunt for meat and the females gather edible plants. While most bands dwell in caves and often venture deep into dungeons and cavern complexes, they are nomadic and tend to move at regular intervals. They occasionally trade with other peoples, especially exchanging furs, hides, and food for tools, and a young man may work for an outsider for a time as a laborer. If the seasons permit, Neanderthals dwell in tents outdoors, and usually winter over in harsh climates in a cave or dungeon.
  Young women frequently marry a member of another band and go to join that band. Sometimes, tensions within the band or an imbalance in the sexes lead a young man or married couple to move to a nearby band. In each of these cases, the band is usually (but not always) within the same tribe.
  Once or twice a year, the bands of a tribe get together to renew old acquaintances, arrange marriages, carryon trade, perform religious ceremonies, exchange information, give judgments on difficult tribal problems, and so forth. During these gatherings, the leader types in each tribe form what amounts to a band of their own, deep in the wilderness. After exchanging their own series of rituals and information, the leaders part and return to their own tribes. These leaders are held in awe by other Neanderthals, and their word is law. Leaders speak a variety of tongues, including the Lawful, common, dwarven, goblin, and ogre languages, as well as Neanderthal speech.